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Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis (DIE)

What is Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis (DIE)?

Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis (DIE) is a highly invasive form of endometriosis that is often characterized by rectovaginal nodules (in the space between the vagina and rectum) and disease of the uterosacral ligaments, rectum, rectovaginal septum, vagina, and bladder.

What is Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis (DIE)
This image depicts DIE scar tissue between the obliterated cul-de-sac and outer uterus. As it can be seen, the scar tissue has started to serve as a sort of "glue" between the two organs, which is the first sign of DIE beginning to lead to frozen pelvis.

What causes DIE?

When ovarian endometriomas become large enough and invade the wall of the ovaries, they begin to leak and even rupture. When this happens, the thickened blood, inflammatory enzymes and other debris that was contained in these fluid-filled enzymes, spill onto other areas within the abdominal and pelvic cavity. The contents will then adhere to these areas and begin to form the nodules and scar tissue that are often seen in cases of deep infiltrating endometriosis.

Leaking or ruptured endometriomas
Leaking or ruptured endometriomas fill other areas of the body with the “chocolate” like fluid they contain, which goes on to form nodules of DIE in areas outside of the uterus and ovaries

What are common Symptoms associated with DIE?

This significant and severe form of endometriosis is strongly associated with high levels of pelvic pain, anatomic distortion, infertility, dysuria, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and gastrointestinal distress, which may include symptoms that present as irritable bowel.

What is the common surgical treatment for DIE?

Because DIE is surgically treated through the same procedure as Frozen Pelvis, more information can be seen under Frozen Pelvis (click here).

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Ovarian Endometrioma (Chocolate cysts)
Ovarian Endometrioma (Chocolate cysts)

What are ovarian endometriomas (Chocolate cysts)? Ovarian endometriomas are highly common and may be present in up to 30-40% of women with the disease. Endometriomas are large, fluid-filled cysts that…

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